Suspension & Steering
Tie rods attach to the knuckle section of the steering arm. The movement of the steering knuckles changes the direction of the wheels. Additionally, the steering knuckle provides the necessary amount of toe out on a turn. Toe out on a turn is the angle the outside tire follows through a turn. Toe out enables the inside wheel to follow a smaller radius than the outside wheel when turning, reducing tire scuffing and wear. The inner tie rods are threaded to the rack. The outer tie rods have a tapered fit into the steering knuckle. The tie rods are the last link controlling the steering of the front wheels. Flexible rubber boots cover openings in the housing, preventing moisture and debris from damaging internal gear components.
The steering and suspension system of a vehicle has multiple moving parts, such ball joints and control arms. These components move in order to accommodate changing driving conditions. These chassis components can wear over time or may become damaged which can transfer stress onto other chassis components. These suspension and steering components require routine inspection and lubrication in order to prevent wear and to prolong the life of the components.
Rack & Pinion
The rack is a long shaft that is threaded on both ends to the inner tie rods. It has a cut gear surface on one side, which engages into the pinion. The other side incorporates a piston that travels from side to side within the cylinder. Hydraulic fluid from the valve assembly is directed to either side of the cylinder to provide rack travel assist on demand.
At the lower end of the column, the intermediate shaft connects the column to the steering rack. Some applications use a single piece intermediate shaft, while others use two pieces.